Friday, December 23, 2011

Plants for Primary Pupils Booklets - Overview - Science & Plants for Schools

Plants for Primary Pupils Booklets - Overview - Science & Plants for Schools

Primary Numbers in Plants - Amaryllis flowers - Science & Plants for Schools

Primary Numbers in Plants - Amaryllis flowers - Science & Plants for Schools

Plants Fight Back: An Article for Post-16 students - Science & Plants for Schools

Plants Fight Back: An Article for Post-16 students - Science & Plants for Schools

parts of plants and their functions


One of a series of booklets written to support plant science in the Primary Curriculum. This topic introduces pupils to the basic parts of a flowering plant, with a range of fun activities to reinforce pupil learning.
This topic introduces pupils to the basic parts of a flowering plant - the root, stem, leaf and flower. It provides a range of activities that include growing plants from seed (inside or outside the classroom), ways of making simple models of a plant and card games that are fun but at the same time reinforce pupil learning and help them to be ready to move on to the next stage.
The 6 'Plants for Primary Pupils' booklets were written in conjunction with the Field Studies Council, and copies were sent out to all UK state primary schools. For extra print copies, please contact the FSC. The booklets can also be downloaded in PDF form from the links on the right. Worksheets are also available online in Word format for editing in your own classroom.
Contents
Parts A to F are available as separate pdf files. Some items in Part F are also available as Word files. Download them from the links on the right.

Part A
  • Front page
  • Safety
  • Copyright information and acknowledgements
  • Introduction

Part B
  • Growing seedlings
  • Activity 1: Growing seedlings in the classroom (1)
  • Activity 2: Growing seedlings in the classroom (2)
  • Growing a sugar snap pea

Part C
  • Games with cards
  • Activity 1: Flash cards
  • Activity 2: Loop cards (plant part dominoes)
  • Activity 3: Snap
  • Activity 4: Memory game of matching pairs
  • Activity 5: Happy families
  • Activity 6: Traditional game of bingo
  • Activity 7: Plant splat

Part D
  • Create a plant
  • Building a plant game

Part E
  • Background information for teachers

Part F
  • Templates - for card sets, grids (bingo and splat) and plant parts. Templates - for card sets, grids (bingo and splat) are also available as Word documents

One of a series of booklets written to support plant science in the Primary Curriculum. This topic introduces pupils to the basic parts of a flowering plant, with a range of fun activities to reinforce pupil learning.
This topic introduces pupils to the basic parts of a flowering plant - the root, stem, leaf and flower. It provides a range of activities that include growing plants from seed (inside or outside the classroom), ways of making simple models of a plant and card games that are fun but at the same time reinforce pupil learning and help them to be ready to move on to the next stage.
The 6 'Plants for Primary Pupils' booklets were written in conjunction with the Field Studies Council, and copies were sent out to all UK state primary schools. For extra print copies, please contact the FSC. The booklets can also be downloaded in PDF form from the links on the right. Worksheets are also available online in Word format for editing in your own classroom.
Contents
Parts A to F are available as separate pdf files. Some items in Part F are also available as Word files. Download them from the links on the right.

Part A
  • Front page
  • Safety
  • Copyright information and acknowledgements
  • Introduction

Part B
  • Growing seedlings
  • Activity 1: Growing seedlings in the classroom (1)
  • Activity 2: Growing seedlings in the classroom (2)
  • Growing a sugar snap pea

Part C
  • Games with cards
  • Activity 1: Flash cards
  • Activity 2: Loop cards (plant part dominoes)
  • Activity 3: Snap
  • Activity 4: Memory game of matching pairs
  • Activity 5: Happy families
  • Activity 6: Traditional game of bingo
  • Activity 7: Plant splat

Part D
  • Create a plant
  • Building a plant game

Part E
  • Background information for teachers

Part F
  • Templates - for card sets, grids (bingo and splat) and plant parts. Templates - for card sets, grids (bingo and splat) are also available as Word documents

Brain Structures and their Functions


Brain Structures and their Functions

The nervous system is your body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord... and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body. Sensory nerves gather information from the environment, send that info to the spinal cord, which then speed the message to the brain. The brain then makes sense of that message and fires off a response. Motor neurons deliver the instructions from the brain to the rest of your body. The spinal cord, made of a bundle of nerves running up and down the spine, is similar to a superhighway, speeding messages to and from the brain at every second.
The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem.
The Cerebrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Here is a visual representation of the cortex:
Image of Cerebral Cortex
What do each of these lobes do?
  • Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
  • Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
  • Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
  • Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
Note that the cerebral cortex is highly wrinkled. Essentially this makes the brain more efficient, because it can increase the surface area of the brain and the amount of neurons within it. We will discuss the relevance of the degree of cortical folding (or gyrencephalization) later. (Go here for more information about cortical folding)
A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres. The two hemispheres look mostly symmetrical yet it has been shown that each side functions slightly different than the other. Sometimes the right hemisphere is associated with creativity and the left hemispheres is associated with logic abilities. The corpus callosum is a bundle of axons which connects these two hemispheres.
Nerve cells make up the gray surface of the cerebrum which is a little thicker than your thumb. White nerve fibers underneath carry signals between the nerve cells and other parts of the brain and body.
The neocortex occupies the bulk of the cerebrum. This is a six-layered structure of the cerebral cortex which is only found in mammals. It is thought that the neocortex is a recently evolved structure, and is associated with "higher" information processing by more fully evolved animals (such as humans, primates, dolphins, etc). For more information about the neocortex, click here.
The Cerebellum: The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.
The cerebellum is assumed to be much older than the cerebrum, evolutionarily. What do I mean by this? In other words, animals which scientists assume to have evolved prior to humans, for example reptiles, do have developed cerebellums. However, reptiles do not have neocortex. Go here for more discussion of the neocortex or go to the following web site for a more detailed look at evolution of brain structures and intelligence: "Ask the Experts": Evolution and Intelligence
Limbic System: The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old.
This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain:
Image of the Limbic System
Click on the words to learn what these structures do:
Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire brains, such as reptiles (who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem. Look at a good example of this here.
The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Click on the words to learn what these structures do:

Friday, December 16, 2011

Robotic telescope network with access via Internet to be built

Robotic telescope network with access via Internet to be built

New Genetic Program Converts Static Cells Into Mobile Invasive Cells

Researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) have identified the gene GATA 6 as responsible for epithelial cells -which group together and are static- losing adhesion and moving towards a new site. This process, which is common to developing organisms, is very similar to one that occurs in metastasis, when tumour cells escape from the original tumour and invade new tissue. "This process explains why Gata 6 is found in cancers of the liver, pancreas and colon, thus allowing tumour cells to acquire metastatic properties," stresses Jordi Casanova, CSIC professor and head of the Drosophila Morphogenesis Group at IRB Barcelona, where the study has been conducted.

The journal Developmental Cell is to publish the results of this study this week.
In addition, Gata 6 triggers a genetic programme that favours the survival and adaptation of cells in new tissue. It also promotes the expression of some enzymes, the so-called metalloproteases, which degrade the cellular matrix, thus allowing cells to migrate and enter new tissue. Furthermore, Gata 6 induces the gene Forkhead, which is a survival factor. "When cells start migrating they are subjected to many changes and to stress, and in these adverse conditions many can die. This gene protects them against death," explains Kira Campbell, "Juan de la Cierva" post-doctoral fellow with Casanova's lab and first author of the article. Tumour cells hold metalloproteases and Forkhead.
From the Drosophila fly to cancer
Once again the small fly D. melanogaster, used in developmental studies, has shed light on processes linked to cancer. Casanova's team, which specializes in morphogenesis, has revealed the mechanism by which epithelial cells transform into mesenchymatic cells during gut development in fly embryos. The Drosophila gut is an endodermal organ, as is the colon, the liver and the pancreas. "What we have discovered is that the programme that we have characterized for the first time is specific for endodermal tissues," explains Casanova.
Having identified the genetic programme that favours this transformation in Drosophila, Casanova contacted Eduard Batlle's lab, which focuses on colorectal cancer and is also at IRB Barcelona. The aim was to test whether the homologue gene in mammal cells had the capacity to produce this same change. Their studies showed that this gene homologue, GATA 6, is conserved and confers cells the same capacities as those observed in the fly. "We started off with a strictly basic research line in development and have ended up with a collaboration with the Oncology Programme to address possible implications in cancer," says Casanova, emphasizing the multidisciplinary nature of the study. His lab now wishes to turn its attention to other members of the GATA family. "For example, pancreatic cancer has very poor prognosis. Our research can contribute to furthering understanding of the genetic bases of endodermal tumours and may speed up the detection of possible therapeutic targets."

Follow your nose: Compared to Neanderthals, modern humans have a better sense of smell

Follow your nose: Compared to Neanderthals, modern humans have a better sense of smell

Discovery of a 'Dark State' Could Mean a Brighter Future for Solar Energy

 The efficiency of conventional solar cells could be significantly increased, according to new research on the mechanisms of solar energy conversion led by chemist Xiaoyang Zhu at The University of Texas at Austin.

 Zhu and his team have discovered that it's possible to double the number of electrons harvested from one photon of sunlight using an organic plastic semiconductor material.
"Plastic semiconductor solar cell production has great advantages, one of which is low cost," said Zhu, a professor of chemistry. "Combined with the vast capabilities for molecular design and synthesis, our discovery opens the door to an exciting new approach for solar energy conversion, leading to much higher efficiencies."
Zhu and his team published their groundbreaking discovery Dec. 16 in Science.
The maximum theoretical efficiency of the silicon solar cell in use today is approximately 31 percent, because much of the sun's energy hitting the cell is too high to be turned into usable electricity. That energy, in the form of "hot electrons," is instead lost as heat. Capturing hot electrons could potentially increase the efficiency of solar-to-electric power conversion to as high as 66 percent.
Zhu and his team previously demonstrated that those hot electrons could be captured using semiconductor nanocrystals. They published that research in Science in 2010, but Zhu says the actual implementation of a viable technology based on that research is very challenging.
"For one thing," said Zhu, "that 66 percent efficiency can only be achieved when highly focused sunlight is used, not just the raw sunlight that typically hits a solar panel. This creates problems when considering engineering a new material or device."
To circumvent that problem, Zhu and his team have found an alternative. They discovered that a photon produces a dark quantum "shadow state" from which two electrons can then be efficiently captured to generate more energy in the semiconductor pentacene.
Zhu said that exploiting that mechanism could increase solar cell efficiency to 44 percent without the need for focusing a solar beam, which would encourage more widespread use of solar technology.
The research team was spearheaded by Wai-lun Chan, a postdoctoral fellow in Zhu's group, with the help of postdoctoral fellows Manuel Ligges, Askat Jailaubekov, Loren Kaake and Luis Miaja-Avila. The research was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.
Science Behind the Discovery:
  • Absorption of a photon in a pentacene semiconductor creates an excited electron-hole pair called an exciton.
  • The exciton is coupled quantum mechanically to a dark "shadow state" called a multiexciton.
  • This dark shadow state can be the most efficient source of two electrons via transfer to an electron acceptor material, such as fullerene, which was used in the study.
  • Exploiting the dark shadow state to produce double the electrons could increase solar cell efficiency to 44 percent.

General Science Quiz

1. What is the biggest planet in our solar system?
2. What is the chemical symbol for the element oxygen?
3. Another name for a tidal wave is a?
4. True or false? Dogs are herbivores.
5. What is the 7th element on the periodic table of elements?
6. What is the name of the long appendage that hangs from an elephants face?
7. True or false? DNA is the shortened form of the term ‘Deoxyribonucleic acid’?
8. The highest mountain on earth is?
9. What is the name of the closest star to the earth?
10. True or false? Frogs are cold blooded animals.
11. What is the name of the element with the chemical symbol ‘He’?
12. The fear of what animal is known as ‘arachnophobia’?
13. Pure water has a pH level of a around?
14. The molten rock that comes from a volcano after it has erupted is known as what?
15. True or false? Yogurt is produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
16. What is the name of the part of the human skeleton which protects our brain?
17. Is the compound ‘HCl’ an acid or base?
18. True or false? The fastest land animal in the world is the zebra.
19. How many bones do sharks have in their bodies?
20. What famous scientist was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on theoretical physics?


General Science Quiz Answers

1. Jupiter
2. O
3. Tsunami
4. False - They are omnivores
5. Nitrogen
6. A trunk
7. True
8. Mount Everest
9. The sun
10. True
11. Helium
12. Spiders
13. 7
14. Lava
15. True
16. The skull
17. An acid (hydrochloric acid)
18. False (it is the cheetah)
19. 0
20. Albert Einstein

Thursday, December 8, 2011

Sunday, December 4, 2011


structure of kidney


Amino Acid Structures

Science History of December 6

1920 - George Porter was born.

Porter was an British chemist who shares half the 1967 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ronald Norrish for their research into very fast chemical reactions. They used pulses of light to increase the number of free radicals in some organic compounds to determine the intermediate steps to perform these reactions.

1900 - George Eugene Uhlenbeck was born.

Uhlenbeck was a Dutch-American physicist who proposed the idea of electron spin with Samuel Abraham. Electron spin is the fourth quantum number and describes an intrinsic angular momentum of an electron. Spin can have one of two values, typically called spin up or spin down. He is also known for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process that describes Brownian motion in a fluid with friction.

1893 - Johann Rudolf Wolf died.

Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816 - 1893)Wikimedia Commons
Wolf was a Swiss astronomer who discovered the sun spot cycle discovered by Heinrich Schwabe had a period of 11.1 years and was linked to geomagnetic activity on Earth. During his research, he developed a method of measuring the activity of sunspots known as the Wolf sunspot number that is in use today.

1863 - Charles Martin Hall was born.

Charles Martin Hall (1863 - 1914)Wikimedia Commons
Hall was an American chemist who discovered an inexpensive method to refine aluminum from ore. He built an apparatus that passed an alternating electrical current through a solution of alumina and cryolite that would cause aluminum metal to precipitate out. This process was also discovered by French chemist, Paul-Louis-Toussaint Héroult at nearly the same time and is generally known as the Hall-Héroult process. It was responsible for greatly reducing the cost to produce aluminum and made it one of the most widely used metals today.

1848 - Johann Palisa was born.

Palisa was an Austrian astronomer who is considered to be the most successful visual discoverer of asteroids. He discovered 122 asteroids, many using only a 6-inch refracting telescope.

1778 - Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac was born.

Portrait of Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 - 1850)Library of Congress
Gay-Lussac was a French chemist who stated two ideal gas laws: Charles's Law and the Law of Combining Volumes. He discovered the element boron. He also established a standard for measuring alcohol co

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates or saccharides are the most abundant class of biomolecules. Carbohydrates are used to store energy, though they serve other important functions as well. This is an overview of carbohydrate chemistry, including a look at the types of carbohydrates, their functions, and carbohydrate classification.

What Is a Carbohydrate?

Carbohydrates are a common class of simple organic compouds. A carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone that has additional hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides, which has the basic structure (C·H2O)n, where n is three or greater. Monosaccharides link together to form oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Two monosaccharides link together to form a disaccharide.

Functions of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates serve several biochemical functions:
  • Monosaccharides are a fuel for celular metabolism.
  • Monosaccharides are used in several biosynthesis reactions.
  • Monosaccharides may be converted into space-saving polysaccharides, such as glyocogen and starch. These molecules provide stored energy for plant and animal cells.
  • Carbohydrates are used to form structural elements, such as chitin in animals and cellulose in plants.
  • Carbohydrates and modified carbohydrates are important for an organism's fertilization, development, blood clotting and immune system function.

Examples of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose
Polysaccharides: chitin, cellulose

Carbohydrate Classification

Three characteristics are used to classify monosaccharides:
  • number of carbon atoms in the molecule
  • location of the carbonyl group
  • the chirality of the carbohydrate
aldose - monosaccharide in which the carbonyl group is an aldehyde ketone - monosaccharide in which the carbonyl group is a ketone
triose - monosaccharide with 3 carbon atoms
tetrose - monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms
pentose - monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms
hexose - monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms
aldohexose - 6-carbon aldehyde (e.g., glucose)
aldopentose - 5-carbon aldehyde (e.g., ribose)
ketohexose - 6-carbon hexose (e.g., fructose)
A monosaccharide is D or L depending on the orientation of the asymmetric carbon located furthest from the carbonyl group. In a D sugar, the hydroxyl group is on the right the molecule when written as a Fischer projection. If the hydroxyl group is on the left of the molecule, then it is an L sugar.

What Are the Elements in the Human Body?

 What Are the Elements in the Human Body?
Answer: Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with cells consisting of 65-90% water by weight. Therefore, it isn't surprising that most of a human body's mass is oxygen. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
  1. Oxygen (65%)
  2. Carbon (18%)
  3. Hydrogen (10%)
  4. Nitrogen (3%)
  5. Calcium (1.5%)
  6. Phosphorus (1.0%)
  7. Potassium (0.35%)
  8. Sulfur (0.25%)
  9. Sodium (0.15%)
  10. Magnesium (0.05%)
  11. Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70%)
  12. Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts)

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

http://microdali.blogspot.com Pageviews by Countries



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ఆశియా దేశాల చంద్ర యానం

ఆశియా దేశాల చంద్ర యానం



20వ శతాబ్దంలో అమెరికా, సోవియట్ రష్యాలు చంద్రుని చేరాయి. 21వ శతాబ్దంలో ఇప్పుడు ఆసియా దేశాలు ప్రయాణమయ్యాయి.
1960, 70 దశకాలలో అమెరికా, సోవియట్ రష్యా దేశాలు పోటీపడి చంద్రుని చేరాయి. ఇప్పుడు ఆ పోటీ ఆశియా దేశాల మధ్య మోదలైంది. 2007 సెప్టెంబరులో జపాన్ వారు "కుగయ" అనే అంతరిక్ష నౌకను ప్రయోగించారు. చైనా వారి "చాంగై-1" అక్టోబరులో చంద్రుని వైపు దూసుకుపోయింది. భారత అంతరిక్ష పరిశోధన సంస్థ ఇస్రో(ISRO), 2008 ఎప్రియల్ నాటికి "చాంద్రాయన్ - 1 " ను ప్రయోగించడానికి త్వరితగతిన సన్నాహాలు చేస్తున్నది. దక్షిణ కొరియా కూడా చంద్రుని అధ్యయనానికి ఒక నౌకను ప్రయోగించే ఉద్దేస్యంలో ఉంది.
చంద్రుని అధ్యయనం చేయడం ద్వారా అంతరిక్ష నౌకల నిర్మాణం, ప్రయోగం వంటి సాంకేతిక పరిజ్ఞానంపై పట్టు సాధించవచ్చునని, ఇది తురువాతి కాలంలో రోదసీలోని ఇతర గ్రహాలను అధ్యయనం చేయటానికి ఎంతో తోడ్పడుతుందని ఖగోళ శాస్త్రజ్ఞులు అభిప్రాయపడుతున్నారు.
భారత్-రష్యాలు 2011-12 నాటికల్లా చంద్రునిపై చరించగల వాహనాన్ని పంపడానికి ఒక అవగాహనకు వచ్చాయి. చైనా కూడా ఇటువంటి వాహనాన్ని పంపించాలని ప్రయత్నిస్తోంది. ఇది ఇలా వుండగా, అమెరికా 2020 నాటికి చంద్రునిపైకి మానవులను తిరిగి పంపటానికి ప్రణాళికలను సిద్దం చేస్తోంది.

వ్యవసాయం - ఆహార భద్రత

వ్యవసాయం - ఆహార భద్రత

వర్షాభావ పరిస్థితుల ప్రభావం

ఒకవేళ మాన్సూను కాలంలో వర్షపాతం తగ్గితే, ఆహార భద్రతను సమకూర్చే కార్యకలాపాలు కుంటుపడవచ్చు. అప్పడు నిరుపేదలకు ఆహారం ఎలా అందించగలం అనేది అసలు సమస్య. పైగా, యూపీఏ ప్రభుత్వం ప్రజలందరికీ ఆహార భద్రత విషయమై ఒక చట్టం తెచ్చే ఉద్దేశ్యంలో ఉన్న తరుణమిది. గ్రామంలోనైనా, పట్టణంలోనైనా, దారిద్ర్య రేఖకు దిగువనున్న ప్రతి కుటుంబానికి, కిలో మూడు రూపాయలకే, నెలకు 25 కిలోల బియ్యం గానీ,గోధుమలు గానీ అందించే విధంగా ఓ కొత్త చట్టం తేవాలన్నది ముఖ్య యోచన. అందుకని, మన వ్యవసాయం వర్షాల మీద తక్కువగా ఆధారపడే విధంగా మార్చాలని మంత్రిత్వశాఖ ప్రయత్నిస్తోంది. "ఈ ఆహార భద్రత కార్యక్రమాలలో విజయం సాధించాలంటే, వ్యవసాయ రంగాన్ని సమూలంగా మార్చాలి " అంన్నారు ఓ సీనియర్ ప్రభుత్వాధికారి. "వ్యవసాయోత్పత్తి పెరగకపోతే, ఫ్రభుత్వం ఖచ్చితంగా మాట నిలబెట్టుకోలేదు" అనేది ఆయన వాదం. అందుచేత ఓ అగ్రికల్చరల్ స్టిమ్యులస్ ప్యాకేజి (వ్యవసాయ ఉద్దీపన)కోసం, మంత్రిత్వ శాఖ కోరాలనేది ఆయన చెప్పే మాట.
అందుకనే, ఈ వాతావరణ సూచనల ద్రుష్ట్యా ప్రభుత్వం కేంద్ర, రాష్ట్ర యంత్రాంగాలను సమాయుత్తపరుస్తోంది. ప్రాంతాలవారీగా పునః సమీక్షించి, వ్యవసాయ విశ్వవిద్యాలయాలతో సంప్రదించి, రైతులకు సరియైన సమయంలో సలహానందించవలసిందింగా, రాష్ట్ర "వెదర్ వాచ్ గ్రూపులను" వ్యవసాయ శాఖ, గురువారం జరిగిన సమావేశంలో కోరింది. పంటల పరిస్థితులపై మీడియా సహాయంతో సమాచారం అందించాలనీ కోరింది. ఒక ప్రత్యేక హెల్ప్‌లైన్ - ఫోను నంబరును ఏర్పరచాలని, తద్వారా వివిధ పరిస్థితులకు అనుగుణంగా, తమ తమ రాష్ట్ర రైతులకి ప్రత్యామ్నాయ వ్యవసాయ సూచనలను/ సాగు పద్ధతులను తెలియజేయాలని కోరింది. అగ్రికల్చర్ టెక్నాలజీ మ్యానేజ్‌మెంటు ఏజెన్సీ నుంచి, కావల్సిన ఆర్ధిక వనరులు అందిచవచ్చని తెలిపింది.

భారతదేశం - అణుశక్తి రంగంలో ప్రగతి

భారతదేశం - అణుశక్తి రంగంలో ప్రగతి

అణుశక్తి రంగంలో స్వయం సంమృద్ధిని సాధించడానికి భారత్ మూడంచెల విధానాన్ని అవలంభిస్తోది
1940లో భారతదేశంలో అణుశక్తి కార్యక్రమాల రూపకల్పన ప్రారంభమయ్యింది. అప్పటికే దేశంలో విస్తారంగా లభిస్తున్న యురేనియం, థోరియం నిల్వలను సమర్థవంతంగా ఉపయోగించుకొనేందుకు వీలుగా మూడు దశల అణుశక్తి సాధన కార్య్రకమాన్ని మన శాస్త్రవేత్తలు రూపొందించారు.
  • మొదటి దశ :

    ఈ దశలో సహజ యురేనియంను పీడన భార జల రియాక్టర్ల ద్వారా మండించిన శక్తిని ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తారు. ఈ ప్రక్రియల్లో ప్లూటోనియం ఉత్పత్తిగా ఏర్పడుతుంది.
  • రెండవ దశ:

    ఈ దశలో మొదటి దశలో ఉత్పత్తి అయిన ప్లూటోనియం ఫాస్ట్ బ్రీడర్ రియాక్టర్లో చర్య జరిగి శక్తి (విద్యుత్)తో పాటు ఉప ఉత్పత్తిగా థోరియం నుంచి యురేనియం -233 ఉత్పత్తి అవుతుంది.
  • మూడవ దశ:

    ఈ దశలో కార్యక్రమం సంక్లిష్టతను సంతరించుకొంటుంది. థోరియం నుండి గణనీయ పరిమాణంలో యు-233- ఉత్పత్తి ప్రారంభమవుతుంది. ప్రస్తుతం మొదటి దశ వాణిజ్య ఉత్పత్తి స్థాయికి చేరింది. ఒక రెండో దశ కల్పక్కంలోని ఫాస్ట్ బ్రీడర్ టెస్ట రియాక్టర (ఎఫ్ బి టిఆర్) విజయవంతం కావడంతో మొదలయ్యింది. యురేనియం -233 ఇంధనం కూడా వెలికి తీయడంతో మూడో దశకు అంకురార్పణ జరిగినట్లయింది.
మొదటి దశలో ఉపయోగించే అధిక పీడన భారజల కర్మాగారం, నమూనా నిర్మానం, పనిచేయించడంలో భాతర దేశం పూర్తి సాంకేతిక సామర్ధ్యాన్ని సాధించింది. అలాగే అణుశక్తి వెలికితీత చక్రంలోన ఎక్సఫ్లోరేషన్, మైనింగ్, ప్యూయల్, ఫ్యాబ్రికేషన్, డిజైనింగ్ తో పాటు న్యూక్లియర్ పవర్ రియాక్టర్ నిర్మాణము, నిర్వహణ సామర్ధ్యాలలో భారత శాస్త్రవేత్తలు పురోగతి సాధించారు. భారత దేశంలోని ఫాస్ట్ బ్రీడర్ రీసెర్చ్ రియాక్టర్ల కోసం తారాపూర్ అణువిద్యుత్ కేంద్రం శుద్ధి చేసిన యురేనియంను ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తుంది.

అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాలు

భారతదేశంలో అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాల నమూన, రూపకల్పన, నిర్మాణం, నియంత్రణ వంటి కార్యకలాపాలను న్యూక్లియర్ పవర్ కార్పొరేషన్ ఆఫ్ ఇండియా లిమిటెడ్ (NPCIL) నిర్వహిస్తుంది.
1969లో తారాపూర్ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్ర నిర్మాణ (TAPS)తో భారతదేశంలో అణు విద్యుత్ ఉత్పత్తి అంకురార్పణ జరిగింది. రెండు 210మె.వా. ఉత్పాదన సామర్ధ్యం కలిగిన యూనిట్లు ఉన్నాయి. దీనిలో ఇంధనంగా ఎన్ రిచ్ డ్ యురేనియం (LUE)తో పాటు యురేనియం ప్లూటోనియం ఆక్సెడ్లు (MOY) మిశ్రమాన్ని కూడా ఉపయోగిస్తారు. ఇటీవల ఈ కేంద్రానికి చైనా నుండి లో ఎన్ రీ చ్ డ్ యురేనియం సరఫరా జరుగుతున్నది.
రాజస్థాన్ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం(RAPS) : రవత్ భాటలో ఈ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం స్థాపించారు. ఇందులో రెండు ప్రొటోటైప్ పిఎచ్ డబ్ల్యుఆర 220 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం కలిగిన యూనిట్లు ఉన్నాయి. ఈ కేంద్రంలో ఇందనంగా సహజ యురేనియంను వాడుతారు. ఈ రెండు యూనిట్లు 1972. 1981లో క్రిటికాలిటిని సాధించాయి. మూడవ, నాల్గవ యూనిట్లలలో ప్రేసరైజ్ డ్ హేవీ వాటర్ రియాక్టర్ లను ఉపయోగిస్తున్నారు. అత్యున్నత సాంకేతిక పరిజ్ఞానం కలిగిన ప్రేసరైజ్ డ్ హెవీ వాటర్ రియాక్టర్ ఉపయోగించిన దేశంలోని మొదటి అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం.
కల్పకంలోని మద్రాస్ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం 1984లో వాణిజ్యపరంగా ఉత్పత్తి ప్రారంభించింది. ఇక్కడ ఉపయోగించిన పి.ఎచ్.డబ్ల్యు.ఆర్. రియాక్టర్లు పూర్తిగా స్వదేశీ పరిజ్ఞానంతో రూపొందించారు. ఈ విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాలనుండి చెన్నై నగరానికి విద్యుత్ సరఫరా జరుగుతుంది.
నరొరా అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం, విద్యుత్ ఉత్పత్తి సామర్ధ్యం220మె.వా. ఉత్తర ప్రదేశ్, ఢిల్లీలకు ఈ కేంద్రం నుండి విద్యుత్ సరఫరా జరుగుతుంది.
కక్రాపార అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం 220 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం కలిగి ఉంది. దీనితో భారతదేశంలో మొత్తం అణు విద్యుత్ స్థాపన 1720 మె.వా.కు పెరిగింది.

అణుశక్తి పరిశోధన - అభివృద్ధి

భారతదేశంలో అణుశక్తి పరిశోధనలు ముఖ్యంగా ట్రాంబేలోని బాబా అటామిక్ రీసెర్చ సెంటర్(BARC) కల్పకంలోని ఇందిరాగాంధీ సెంటర్ ఫర్ అటామిక్ రిసర్ ్చ (IGCAR) ఇండోర్లోని సెంటర్ఫర అడ్వాన్స్డ్ టెక్నాలజీ కోల్కతాలోని వేరియడా ఎనర్జీ క్లైక్లోట్రాన్ సెంటర్లో జరుగుతున్నాయి. బాబా అణు పరిశోధనా కేంద్రాన్ని (BARC)ను 1957లో నెలకొల్పొనారు. ఇది భారతదేశ అణుశక్తి పరిశోధనకు కీలకమైంది.
పూర్తిగా స్వదేశీ పరిజ్ఞానంతో నెలకొల్పొన ఒక మె.వా. సామర్థ్యం కలిగిన మొదటి భారతీయ పరిశోధన రియాక్టర్ అస్పర.40 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం కలిగిన సైరస్ (CIRUS) రియాక్టర్ 1960 నుండి చేయ... ప్రారంభించింది. పూర్ణిమ 2 యు-233 ఇంధనాన్ని ఉపయోగించిన రాయాక్టరు. 1985లో పని చేయడం ప్రారంభించిన ధృవ. పూర్తిగా స్వదేశీ పరిజ్ఞానంతో నిర్మించిన 100 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం గల రియాక్టరు. కల్పకంలోని కామిని రియాక్టర్ న్యూట్రాన్ ఇంధన ఆథారితమైనది.

భారతదేశం - అణు పరీక్షలు

భారతదేశం - అణు పరీక్షలు

1974 మే 18న మొదటిసారిగా రాజస్థాన్లోని పోఖ్రాన్లో భారతదేశం అణు పాటవ పరీక్షలు నిర్వహించింది. ఈ పరీక్షలో ప్లూటోనియంను ఉపయోగించారు. దీని ప్రేలుడు శక్తి 12 కిలోటన్ టి.ఎన్.టి.లకు సమానం. ఈ పరీక్షల వల్ల ఎటువంటి రేడియోధార్మికత వెలువడలేదు. 24 సంవత్సరాల తర్వాత 1998 మేలో రెండవ సారి భారతదేశం అణు పరీక్షలు నిర్వహించింది. దీనితో హభారతదేశం అణుశక్తి సామర్ధ్యం ఉన్నదని ప్రపంచదేశాలకు చాటింది. మే 11 నుండి మే 17 మధ్య జరిగిన ఈ పరీక్షలు 'ఆపరేషన్ శక్తి 98' అనే సంకేతనామంతో పిలిచారు. మే 11న జరిపిన మూడు అణు పరీక్షలలో ఒకటి థెర్మోన్యూక్లియర్ హైడ్రోజన్ బాంబు కాగా మిగతావి రెండు అణు పరీక్షలలో ఒకటి మధ్య రకమైన, ఇంకొటి స్వల్ప శక్తిగల అణు పరీక్షలు . మే 13న నిర్వహించిన రెండు అణు పరీక్షలు డిజైన్లో మెరుగైన కంప్యూటర్ సిమ్యూలేషన కోసం అదనపు డేటా సాధనకు వీటిని ఉపయోగించారు.

Diagram of the water cycle, in Telugu.

Diagram of the water cycle, in Telugu.
Diagram of the water cycle.

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Hair loss solution


Hair is the frame of face. It really helps people’s appearance significantly. However, baldness often attacks men and women especially people above forty years old. The unbalance hormone has the main role for hair loss. It is commonly said as the male pattern baldness. Unlike its name, male pattern baldness not only can occur to male, female can also suffer of this baldness syndrome. This condition has caused business of hair grow products grow fast. There are many hair grow products are offered in the market.

All of them claim that their products are the best for hair loss solution. In the contrary of their promotion, many of hair grows products contain dangerous ingredients that may harm your scalp and your body. Just choose the hair grow products that clically proven good for growing hair and save with money back guarantee, such as Provillus and Procelin. Provillus is the hair supplement that work fast to grow your hair. It gives good nutrition for your hair, so that your hair will grow beautifully and shiny. It is available for both men and women.

Another good hair product is Procelin. It is natural supplement and serum that contain save ingredients to guarantee the beautiful hair growth. Visit Trustsource.org to read more and purchase the best hair grow solution.

How to Get Pearl Teeth like Celeb


One of the Hollywood celebs’ secrets of their fascinating look is they always pay much attention to their teeth. Actually, no need to be a celeb, you can also get the pearl teeth with the simple tips as following.

First, always take care of your teeth and mouth. Brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste is one of the effective ways. Second, remember that you are what you eat! You better eat a well balance diet and prevent tobacco products. Smoking is really harmful for your teeth and mouth. It causes the yellow tone of the teeth, and worse, can also causes oral cancer. Third is bleaching. It’s the most common way to get white teeth recently. In bleaching processes, special chemical is applied to the teeth to make them whiter. Bleaching is very popular because the process is so simple that you can apply yourself at home.

Another more modern way to get white teeth is Veneers. A veneer is the process of coating your teeth using composite materials, or porcelain. Unlike bleaching, veneer process can only be done by a dentist. Always consult your dentist when you like to have veneer teeth. See? To get the bling bling teeth like celeb is really easy!

New species of Indonesian sharks and rays

"Indonesia has the most diverse shark and ray fauna and the largest shark and ray fishery in the world, with reported landings of more than 100,000 tons a year,'' said William White, a co-author of the sharks and rays research.

Twenty new species of sharks and rays have been discovered in Indonesia in a five-year survey of catches at local fish markets, Australian researchers said Wednesday.

The survey by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), represents the first in-depth look at Indonesia's sharks and rays since Dutch scientist Pieter Bleeker described more than 1,100 fish species from 1842-60.

Researchers said six of their discoveries have been described in peer review journals, including the Bali Catshark and Jimbaran Shovelnose Ray, found only in Bali, and the Hortle's Whipray, found only in West Papua.

From 2001 to 2006, researchers photographed and sampled more than 130 species on 22 survey trips to 11 ports across Indonesia. More than 800 specimens were lodged in reference collections at the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense at Cibinong, Java, and the Australian National Fish Collection at Hobart.

The survey was part of a broader project working toward improved management of sharks and rays in Indonesia and Australia, researchers said. “Good taxonomic information is critical to managing shark and ray species, which reproduce relatively slowly and are extremely vulnerable to overfishing,'' White said in a statement.

Interesting Animal Facts

A single cow lets out the amount of harmful methane gas, which can fill about 400-liter bottles; that too in a single day. Pollution!

Roar, roar! I am the king of the jungle! But did you know the lion would be defeated by a polar bear in a battle between the two?

Humans daydream with their eyes open, and dolphins actually sleep with their eyes wide open.

Bulls are known to be colorblind. It’s a black-and-white life for them!

The sweat glands of a cow are in its nose.

This is really interesting! You will not believe this one! A mosquito has 47 teeth.

The Poison Arrow frog has enough poison stored in it that it can harm 2,200 people at one go.

A ‘blessing’ is a herd of unicorns.

A ‘mob’ is not just a group of unruly people; but also a group of kangaroos – well behaved or not!

A ‘parliament’ is not just made up of our dear politicians, but is also a group of owls.

Hang a chicken upside down and give it something to eat. The result! It will not be able to swallow its food.

Brainpower! A garden caterpillar has 248 muscles in its head.

The memory span of goldfish is just about 3 seconds.

While a donkey will sink in quicksand, a mule will not.

According to records there are 50 million monkeys. That is quite an over population!

An angry horned-toad squirts blood from its eyes. Bloodshot eyes!

My blue-eyed boy! A scallop has 35 eyes that are blue in color.

Before a spotted skunk is about to spray it will first do a couple of handstands.

Amazing Animal Facts

A horse weighing approximately 1,200-pounds, eats approximately seven times it's own weight, in a year. That amounts to almost 8,400-pounds of food. Wow! What an appetite!

Apart from human’s even chimpanzees can learn to recognize their own image in a mirror.

A cow can give far more milk than a human can consume their lifetime. Any guesses? Almost 200,000 glasses full of milk!

While there are so many cows grazing in the world, no two cows will ever be found with identical pattern of spots.

A probable identity crisis we have here! Though named polecat, this creature is not a cat but a nocturnal weasel-species in Europe.

Is a zebra black with white stripes, or white with black stripes? Any guesses? Well, it’s white with black stripes.

Talk about noise pollution in the jungles! A lion’s roar is so loud that it can heard upto a distance of five miles.

Cheetahs maybe large and fast, but when they roar they chirp. This sounds more like a bird or a yelping dog. Beware, it is loud enough to be heard upto a mile away.

The tusks of elephants grow through their life. The tusks weigh over 200 pounds.

Only the male Asian elephants have tusks.

The male and female African elephants have tusks.

The largest ever lobster to be found weighed 19 kg. It was found in 1934.

The largest recorded jellyfish measured 2,3 m across its bell. Its tentacles measured 36 m (120 feet) in length.

The largest giant squid ever found weighed 4 tons. It was traced in the in the North Atlantic in the year 1878.

Funny Animal Facts

Have you heard of a sheep with blue wool? Well, a couple of animal breeders from Russia had claimed sometime ago that they bred sheep with natural blue wool.

“Moo, moo,” says the cow everywhere in the world; and a pig says “Moo, moo” in Japan.

The eyesight of dogs are better than that of human beings.

Animal accents! The accent of a cow’s mooing depends on the region it belongs to.

On an average a hen lays 19 dozen eggs in a year.

The small intestine of an ostrich measures upto 46-feet in length.

Your pet cat can scare a black bear. The big fellow will run up a tree to save itself from the little domestic creature. Meow, meow!

Sleeping beauties! Gorillas sleep upto fourteen hours, a day.

While the male lion rests in its den, it is the females that have go out and get the food.

Simon says Jump! No point an elephant simply cannot jump to even save its life.

No right turn! The bats do not need any boards, for its always the left turn for them when exiting a cave.

Sharks are the only known species to never suffer from cancer.

Heavyweights! The tongue of a blue whale could weigh more than a full-grown adult elephant.

Oysters change from male to female gender several times during their lifespan.

Every shrimp is actually born a male and then become females as they mature.

An elephant can smell water from a distance of three miles.

A storage bin! The duckbill platypus is known to store upto six hundred worms in its cheek pouches.

Music lovers! Make a cow listen to music and there will be more milk in the bucket!

Improve Your Bird ID Skills

So you're enjoying a cup of coffee at your kitchen table when an unknown bird lands at your brand new feeder, and you ask yourself, "What kind of bird is that?" Or you're an experienced birder, determined to learn the sparrows, out in the field with an unfamiliar bird in focus. Now what? Like any skill, you need to practice to get good. Using the clues below, try to improve your identification skill set!

Clue 1. Describe what you see. This is the best way to really SEE a bird. Take the time to go over the bird, being patient to notice every part of it. What color is it? What does its bill look like? Does it have long legs or short ones? A great way to make yourself notice all the details about a bird is to say them out loud. If there is someone with you, tell them what you see: "Well, it's blue and has a long bill in relation to its head..." Even if there isn't anyone there, quietly tell yourself, "OK, light brown head with a black stripe across the eyes..." Writing down what you have noticed definitely solidifies the clues in your head, so take the time to jot down a few words in your notebook.

Clue 2. What is it doing? Noticing behavior is the untapped gem of bird identifying! Most good ID guides will not only show you what the bird looks like, but tell you what kind of behaviors the bird exhibits. Some birds do things that are dead giveaways, like tail bobbing, and you should learn to notice and remember these clues just as much as noticing the colors of undertail coverts.

Clue 3. What kind of sounds is it making? Learning songs and calls is another great way to help you identify a bird. Being able to walk outside and recognize birds by their sounds is a definite thrill, especially when it's unexpected. Develop an ear for bird sounds by listening to recordings of them.

Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance - a clue to global warming


Michael Angilletta of Indiana State University, a U.S.-led team of international biologists, says some ants have adjusted to well to urban warming and may help other species adapt to such climate change.

The researchers note large cities can be more than 10 degrees hotter than their surroundings, with such urban heat islands stressing animals and plants.

The scientists discovered that ants in Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America's largest city, can tolerate heat better than ants from elsewhere. That finding suggests Sao Paulo ants have adjusted physiologically in response to urban warming.

"We don't know whether this pattern will hold up for other species or other cities, but people should certainly be looking," said Angilletta, an associate professor of ecology and organismal biology. "Ultimately, this research could help us to understand how species will respond to global climate change."

Chimps menstruation


Males and females of various species often manage when they have sex to influence their chances of having offspring. For instance, nearly all chimpanzee sex takes place when females are at the most fertile points of their menstrual cycles.

Curiously, females are known to sync up their menstrual cycles—and how fertile they are—in a number of primate species. Humans may synchronize menstrual cycles as well, although this remains controversial. Whether or not chimpanzees, the closest relatives of humans, sync up their menstrual cycles had been uncertain.

To shed light on this phenomenon, primatologist Akiko Matsumoto-Oda at Okinawa University and her colleagues investigated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale Mountains National Park in Tanzania by the shores of Lake Tanganyika. There, Japanese researchers have studied the chimpanzees for more than 40 years.

After analyzing nine years of data, the team found chimps actually avoided synchronizing their fertility. The findings are detailed in the March issue of the journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

the great biologists

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_biologists

NASA CURRENT NEWS

http://science.nasa.gov/

NASA Big Questions

NASA has defined a set of space and Earth Science questions that can best be addressed using the Agency’s unique capabilities.  NASA works with the broader scientific community, considers national initiatives, and the results of decade-long surveys by the National Research Council in defining these questions.
See also the Science Strategy section for more information about how NASA Science is pursuing these questions.